Analysis of cyclic imines in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Galicia (NW Spain) by LC-MS/MS
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/1558
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/1/281
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Cyclic imines (CIs) are being considered as emerging toxins in the European Union, and a scientific opinion has been published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in which an assessment of the risks to human health related to their consumption has been carried out. Recommendations on the EFSA opinion include the search for data occurrence of CIs in shellfish and using confirmatory methods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which need to be developed and optimized. The aim of this work is the application of LC-MS/MS to the analysis of gymnodimines (GYMs), spirolides (SPXs), pinnatoxins (PnTXs), and pteriatoxins (PtTXs) in mussels from Galician Rias, northwest Spain, the main production area in Europe, and therefore a representative emplacement for their evaluation. Conditions were adjusted using commercially available certified reference standards of GYM-A, SPX-1, and PnTX-G and evaluated through quality control studies. The EU-Harmonised Standard Operating Procedure for determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in molluscs by LC-MS/MS was followed, and the results obtained from the analysis of eighteen samples from three different locations that showed the presence of PnTXs and SPXs are presented and discussed. Concentrations of PnTX-G and SPX-1 ranged from 1.8 to 3.1 µg/kg and 1.2 to 6.9 µg/kg, respectively, and PnTX-A was detected in the group of samples with higher levels of PnTX-G after a solid phase extraction (SPE) step used for the concentration of extracts.
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