Vitamin A5/X, a new food to lipid hormone concept for a nutritional ligand to control RXR-mediated signaling
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2055
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/3/925
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Vitamin A is a family of derivatives synthesized from carotenoids acquired from the diet and can be converted in animals to bioactive forms essential for life. Vitamin A1 (all-trans-retinol/ATROL) and provitamin A1 (all-trans-β,β-carotene/ATBC) are precursors of all-trans-retinoic acid acting as a ligand for the retinoic acid receptors. The contribution of ATROL and ATBC to formation of 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (9CDHRA), the only endogenous retinoid acting as retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligand, remains unknown. To address this point novel and already known retinoids and carotenoids were stereoselectively synthesized and administered in vitro to oligodendrocyte cell culture and supplemented in vivo (orally) to mice with a following high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)/UV-Vis based metabolic profiling. In this study, we show that ATROL and ATBC are at best only weak and non-selective precursors of 9CDHRA. Instead, we identify 9-cis-13,14-dihydroretinol (9CDHROL) and 9-cis-13,14-dihydro-β,β-carotene (9CDHBC) as novel direct nutritional precursors of 9CDHRA, which are present endogenously in humans and the human food chain matrix. Furthermore, 9CDHROL displayed RXR-dependent promnemonic activity in working memory test similar to that reported for 9CDHRA. We also propose that the endogenous carotenoid 9-cis-β,β-carotene (9CBC) can act as weak, indirect precursor of 9CDHRA via hydrogenation to 9CDHBC and further metabolism to 9CDHROL and/or 9CDHRA. In summary, since classical vitamin A1 is not an efficient 9CDHRA precursor, we conclude that this group of molecules constitutes a new class of vitamin or a new independent member of the vitamin A family, named “Vitamin A5/X”.
Files in this item
- Krezel_Wojciech_2021_Vit_A5X_a ...