High levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in trumpet shell Charonia lampas from the Portuguese Coast
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2094
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/13/4/250
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3206.11 Toxicidad de Los Alimentos ; 2301 Química Analítica ; 2302.90 Bioquímica de Alimentos
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin, considered an emerging toxin in Europe where recently a safety limit of 44 µg TTX kg−1 was recommended by authorities. In this study, three specimens of the large gastropod trumpet shell Charonia lampas bought in a market in south Portugal were analyzed using a neuroblastoma cell (N2a) based assay and by LC-MS/MS. N2a toxicity was observed in the viscera of two individuals analyzed and LC-MS/MS showed very high concentrations of TTX (42.1 mg kg−1) and 4,9-anhydroTTX (56.3 mg kg−1). A third compound with m/z 318 and structurally related with TTX was observed. In the edible portion, i.e., the muscle, toxin levels were below the EFSA recommended limit. This study shows that trumpet shell marine snails are seafood species that may reach the markets containing low TTX levels in the edible portion but containing very high levels of TTX in non-edible portion raising concerns regarding food safety if a proper evisceration is not carried out by consumers. These results highlight the need for better understanding TTX variability in this gastropod species, which is critical to developing a proper legal framework for resources management ensuring seafood safety, and the introduction of these gastropods in the markets.
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