Comprehensive overview on the chemistry and biological activities of selected alkaloid producing marine-derived fungi as a valuable reservoir of drug entities
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2135
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/9/5/485
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Marine-associated fungal strains act as a valuable reservoir of bioactive diverse secondary metabolites including alkaloids which are highly popular by their biological activities. This review highlighted the chemistry and biology of alkaloids isolated from twenty-six fungal genera associated with marine organisms and marine sea sediments. The selected fungi are from different marine sources without focusing on mangroves. The studied fungal genera comprises Acrostalagmus, Arthrinium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Coniothyrium, Curvularia, Dichotomomyces, Eurotium, Eutypella, Exophiala, Fusarium, Hypocrea, Microsphaeropsis, Microsporum, Neosartorya, Nigrospora, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pleosporales, Pseudallescheria, Scedosporium, Scopulariopsis, Stagonosporopsis, Thielavia, Westerdykella, and Xylariaceae. Around 347 alkaloid metabolites were isolated and identified via chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques comprising 1D and 2D NMR (one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance) which were further confirmed using HR-MS (high resolution mass spectrometry) and Mosher reactions for additional ascertaining of the stereochemistry. About 150 alkaloids showed considerable effect with respect to the tested activities. Most of the reported bioactive alkaloids showed considerable biological activities mainly cytotoxic followed by antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant; however, a few showed anti-inflammatory and antifouling activities. However, the rest of the compounds showed weak or no activity toward the tested biological activities and required further investigations for additional biological activities. Thus, alkaloids isolated from marine-associated fungi can afford an endless source of new drug entities that could serve as leads for drug discovery combating many human ailments.
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