A new family of Jumonji C domain-containing KDM inhibitors inspired by natural product Purpurogallin
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2344
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are involved in cancer development. Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are found mainly up-regulated in breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Currently, growing interest is focusing on the identification and development of new inhibitors able to block the activity of KDMs and thus reduce tumor progression. KDM4A is known to play a role in several cellular physiological processes, and was recently found overexpressed in a number of pathological states, including cancer. In this work, starting from the structure of purpurogallin 9aa, previously identified as a natural KDM4A inhibitor, we synthesized two main sets of compound derivatives in order to improve their inhibitory activity against KDM4A in vitro and in cells, as well as their antitumor action. Based on the hypothetical biogenesis of the 5-oxo-5H-benzoannulene skeleton of the natural product purpurogallin (Salfeld, 1960; Horner et al., 1961; Dürckheimer and Paulus, 1985; Tanaka et al., 2002; Yanase et al., 2005) the pyrogallol and catechol units were first combined with structural modifications at different positions of the aryl ring using enzyme-mediated oxidative conditions, generating a series of benzotropolone analogs. Two of the synthetic analogs of purpurogallin, 9ac and 9bc, showed an efficient inhibition (50 and 80%) of KDM4A in enzymatic assays and in cells by increasing levels of its specific targets, H3K9me3/2 and H3K36me3. However, these two compounds/derivatives did not induce cell death. We then synthesized a further set of analogs of these two compounds with greater structural diversification. The most potent of these analogs, 9bf, displayed the highest KDM4A inhibitory enzymatic activity in vitro (IC50 of 10.1 and 24.37μM) in colon cancer cells, and the strongest antitumor action in several solid and hematological human cancer cell lines with no toxic effect in normal cells. Our findings suggest that further development of this compound and its derivatives may lead to the identification of new therapeutic antitumor agents acting through inhibition of KDM4A.
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