Use of mass spectrometry to determine the diversity of toxins produced by Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa species from Balearic Islands and Crete (Mediterranean Sea) and the Canary Islands (Northeast Atlantic)
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2569
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/12/5/305
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3206.11 Toxicidad de Los Alimentos ; 3105 Peces y Fauna Silvestre ; 2301 Química Analítica
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Over the last decade, knowledge has significantly increased on the taxonomic identity and distribution of dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Additionally, a number of hitherto unknown bioactive metabolites have been described, while the role of these compounds in ciguatera poisoning (CP) remains to be clarified. Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins are very toxic compounds produced by these dinoflagellates and have been described since the 1980s. Ciguatoxins are generally described as the main contributors to this food intoxication. Recent reports of CP in temperate waters of the Canary Islands (Spain) and the Madeira archipelago (Portugal) triggered the need for isolation and cultivation of dinoflagellates from these areas, and their taxonomic and toxicological characterization. Maitotoxins, and specifically maitotoxin-4, has been described as one of the most toxic compounds produced by these dinoflagellates (e.g., G. excentricus) in the Canary Islands. Thus, characterization of toxin profiles of Gambierdiscus species from adjacent regions appears critical. The combination of liquid chromatography coupled to either low- or high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed for characterization of several strains of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa from the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands. Maitotoxin-3, two analogues tentatively identified as gambieric acid C and D, a putative gambierone analogue and a putative gambieroxide were detected in all G. australes strains from Menorca and Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) while only maitotoxin-3 was present in an F. paulensis strain of the same region. An unidentified Gambierdiscus species (Gambierdiscus sp.2) from Crete (Greece) showed a different toxin profile, detecting both maitotoxin-3 and gambierone, while the availability of a G. excentricus strain from the Canary Islands (Spain) confirmed the presence of maitotoxin-4 in this species. Overall, this study shows that toxin profiles not only appear to be species-specific but probably also specific to larger geographic regions.
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