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Nanoparticles and trained immunity: Glimpse into the future

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Nanoparticles and trained immunity: Glimpse into the future

Magadán Mompó, Susana; Mikelez Alonso, Idoia; Borrego, Francisco; González Fernández, Maria Africa
DATE : 2021-08
UNESCO SUBJECT : 2412 Inmunología


Emerging evidences show that innate immune cells can display changes in their functional programs after infection or vaccination, which lead to immunomodulation (increased or reduced responsiveness) upon secondary activation to the same stimuli or even to a different one. Innate cells acquire features of immunological memory, nowadays using the new term of "trained immunity" or "innate immune memory", which is different from the specific memory immune response elicited by B and T lymphocytes. The review focused on the concept of trained immunity, mostly on myeloid cells. Special attention is dedicated to the pathogen recognition along the evolution (bacteria, plants, invertebrate and vertebrate animals), and to techniques used to study epigenetic reprogramming and metabolic rewiring. Nanomaterials can be recognized by immune cells offering a very promising way to learn about trained immunity. Nanomaterials could be modified in order to immunomodulate the responses ad hoc. Many therapeutic possibilities are opened, and they should be explored.

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