NePCM based on silver dispersions in Poly(Ethylene Glycol) as a stable solution for thermal storage
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/1559
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/1/19
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2213.02 Física de la Transmisión del Calor ; 3328.16 Transferencia de Calor ; 2210.18 Física del Estado Liquido
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The main objective of this study is to design and characterize silver suspensions based on poly(ethylene glycol) PEG400, Ag/PEG400, as energy storage media for low-temperature applications. A polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) treatment was applied to ~22 nm silver nanoparticles to ensure good stability in poly(ethylene glycol). An array of different experimental techniques was utilized to analyze the molecular mass and purity of base poly(ethylene glycol), morphology of dry PVP-capped Ag nanoparticles, hydrodynamic average size of dispersed Ag particles, as well as thermal stability of PEG400 and Ag/PEG400 dispersions. Samples exhibited good temporal stabilities with average hydrodynamic diameter around 50 nm according to dynamic light scattering analyses. Melting and solidification transitions were investigated in terms of temperature and enthalpy from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermograms. The thermophysical characterization was completed with thermal conductivity (k), dynamic viscosity (η), isobaric heat capacity (Cp), density (ρ), and surface tension (σ) measurements of designed materials using a Hot Disk thermal conductivimeter, a rotational rheometer, a DSC calorimeter working with a quasi-isothermal modulated method, a U-tube densimeter and a drop shape analyzer, respectively. For a nanoparticle loading of only 1.1% in mass, sub-cooling reduced by 7.1% and thermal conductive improved by 3.9%, with almost no penalization in dynamic viscosity (less than 5.4% of increase). Maximum modifications in Cp, ρ, and σ were 0.9%, 2.2%, and 2.2%, respectively. Experimental results were compared with the values provided by using different theoretical or semi-empirical equations. In particular, good descriptions of dynamic viscosity as functions of temperature and nanoparticle volume concentration were obtained by using the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann equation and a first-order polynomial η( ϕ v , n p ) correlation, with absolute average deviations of 2.2% and 0.55%, respectively.
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