Preclinical evaluation of an innovative bone graft of marine origin for the treatment of critical-sized bone defects in an animal model
IDENTIFICADOR UNIVERSAL: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2036
VERSIÓN EDITADA: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/11/5/2116
MATERIA UNESCO: 2407.01 Cultivo Celular ; 3312 Tecnología de Materiales ; 3314.02 Prótesis
TIPO DE DOCUMENTO: article
Autogenous cancellous bone graft is the current gold standard of treatment for the management of bone defects since it possesses the properties of osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and osteogenesis. Xenografts and synthetic grafts have been widely reported as available and low-cost alternatives, which retain good osteoconductive and mechanical properties. Given the rich biodiversity of ocean organisms, marine sources are of particular interest in the search for alternative bone grafts with enhanced functionalities. The purpose of this paper is to assess the biocompatibility of a marine-derived bone graft obtained from shark tooth, which is an environmentally sustainable and abundant raw material from fishing. This research presents the findings of a preclinical trial—following UNE-EN ISO 10993—that induced a critical-sized bone defect in a rabbit model and compared the results with a commercial bovine-derived bone graft. Evaluation by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after implantation revealed good osseointegration, with no signs of inflammatory foreign body reactions, fibrosis, or necrosis in any of the cases. The shark tooth-derived bone graft yielded significantly higher new bone mineral density values (54 ± 6%) than the control (27 ± 8%). Moreover, the percentage of intersection values were much higher (86 ± 8%) than the bovine-derived bone graft (30 ± 1%) used as control. The area of occupancy by bone tissue in the test material (38 ± 5%) also gave higher values than the control (30 ± 6%). The role of physicochemical properties, biphasic structure, and composition on the stimulation of bone regeneration is also discussed.
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