Volumetric properties and surface tension of few-layer graphene nanofluids based on a commercial heat transfer fluid
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2187
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/13/3462
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Volumetric properties such as density and isobaric thermal expansivity, and surface tension are of paramount importance for nanofluids to evaluate their ability to be used as efficient heat transfer fluids. In this work, the nanofluids are prepared by dispersing few-layer graphene in a commercial heat transfer fluid Tyfocor® LS (40:60 wt.% propylene-glycol/water) with the aid of three different nonionic surfactants: Triton X-100, Pluronic® P-123 and Gum Arabic. The density, isobaric thermal expansivity and surface tension of each of the base fluids and nanofluids are evaluated between 283.15 and 323.15 K. The influence of the mass content in few-layer graphene from 0.05 to 0.5% on these nanofluid properties was studied. The density behavior of the different proposed nanofluids is slightly affected by the presence of graphene, and its evolution is well predicted by the weight-average equation depending on the density of each component of the nanofluids. For all the analyzed samples, the isobaric thermal expansivity increases with temperature which can be explained by a weaker degree of cohesion within the fluids. The surface tension evolution of the graphene-based nanofluids is found to be sensitive to the used surfactant, its content and the few-layer graphene concentration.
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