Valorization of arnica montana wastes after extraction of the ethanol tincture: application in polymer-based matrices
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2486
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/13/18/3121
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2205.02 Mecánica de Medios Continuos ; 3303.03 Procesos Químicos ; 2206.10 Polímeros
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The waste solids remaining after the ethanolic extraction of arnica were proposed as raw material for the recovery of the remaining phenolic fraction. Greener processes based on intensification extraction, with microwave (MHG) and ultrasound (UAE) assistance and pressurized hot water extraction under subcritical conditions (AH), were studied. The entire process provided approximately 28% of phenolics for the sequence when MHG was used, 22% in the sequence where AH was employed, and the extracts showed up to 60% the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of Trolox. However, the cytotoxic effects on the cell growth of tumoral cells were only moderate. Therefore, considering a possible external topical application, extracts containing selected arnica extracts were further used to develop polymer-based gelled matrices formulated with either chitosan or polyvinyl alcohol. Rheological testing indicated that all proposed matrices exhibited relatively high mechanical features, even better than those determined with matrices prepared with their counterpart commercial arnica tinctures. Overall, the shear-thinning behavior of gelled matrices loaded with arnica extracts obtained by MHG or AH stages was enhanced compared to those containing ethanolic extracts, whereas the viscoelastic features became smoother for polymeric matrices incorporated with arnica extracts recovered at the highest MHG irradiation powers or at the highest set point temperatures of AH treatments.
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