An update on ciguatoxins and CTX-like toxicity in fish from different trophic levels of the selvagens islands (NE Atlantic, Madeira, Portugal)
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2505
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/13/8/580
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3206.11 Toxicidad de Los Alimentos ; 3105 Peces y Fauna Silvestre ; 2301.03 Análisis Cromatográfico
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The Selvagens Islands, which are a marine protected area located at the southernmost point of the Portuguese maritime zone, have been associated with fish harboring ciguatoxins (CTX) and linked to ciguatera fish poisonings. This study reports the results of a field sampling campaign carried out in September 2018 in these remote and rarely surveyed islands. Fifty-six fish specimens from different trophic levels were caught for CTX-like toxicity determination by cell-based assay (CBA) and toxin content analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Notably, high toxicity levels were found in fish with an intermediate position in the food web, such as zebra seabream (Diplodus cervinus) and barred hogfish (Bodianus scrofa), reaching levels up to 0.75 µg CTX1B equivalent kg−1. The LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that C-CTX1 was the main toxin, but discrepancies between CBA and LC-MS/MS in D. cervinus and top predator species, such as the yellowmouth barracuda (Sphyraena viridis) and amberjacks (Seriola spp.), suggest the presence of fish metabolic products, which need to be further elucidated. This study confirms that fish from coastal food webs of the Selvagens Islands represent a high risk of ciguatera, raising important issues for fisheries and environmental management of the Selvagens Islands.
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