Polyphenols as antioxidants for extending food shelf-life and in the prevention of health diseases: encapsulation and interfacial phenomena
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/2886
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/9/12/1909
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Toxicity caused by the exposure to human-made chemicals and environmental conditions has become a major health concern because they may significantly increase the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), negatively affecting the endogenous antioxidant defense. Living systems have evolved complex antioxidant mechanisms to protect cells from oxidative conditions. Although oxidative stress contributes to various pathologies, the intake of molecules such as polyphenols, obtained from natural sources, may limit their effects because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties against lipid peroxidation and against a broad range of foodborne pathogens. Ingestion of polyphenol-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, help to reduce the harmful effects of ROS, but the use of supramolecular and nanomaterials as delivery systems has emerged as an efficient method to improve their pharmacological and therapeutic effects. Suitable exogenous polyphenolic antioxidants should be readily absorbed and delivered to sites where pathological oxidative damage may take place, for instance, intracellular locations. Many potential antioxidants have a poor bioavailability, but they can be encapsulated to improve their ideal solubility and permeability profile. Development of effective antioxidant strategies requires the creation of new nanoscale drug delivery systems to significantly reduce oxidative stress. In this review we provide an overview of the oxidative stress process, highlight some properties of ROS, and discuss the role of natural polyphenols as bioactives in controlling the overproduction of ROS and bacterial and fungal growth, paying special attention to their encapsulation in suitable delivery systems and to their location in colloidal systems where interfaces play a crucial role.
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