Bromine speciation by a paper-based sensor integrated with a citric acid/cysteamine fluorescent probe and smartphone detection
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3021
EDITED VERSION: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0925400522001411
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2301 Química Analítica
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The present work reports on a sensitive and affordable non-instrumental method for the determination of bromine species in environmental waters by combination of paper-based headspace sampling and smartphone-based fluorescence detection. The proposed approach takes advantage of the luminescence quenching of a probe (5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2 H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyridine-7-carboxylic acid, TPCA) derived from natural compounds, namely, citric acid and cysteamine, when exposed to molecular bromine. The decreased luminescence intensity of the probe was attributed to the formation of a dibrominated derivative of TPCA at the detection area of a paper-based analytical device (PAD). Remarkably, PADs modified with the luminescent probe showed excellent stability. Under optimal conditions, the proposed approach showed limits of detection of 5.4 µg L-1 and 0.9 µg L-1 for Br- and BrO3-, respectively, with a repeatability lower than 10% for both bromine species. The non-instrumental method was validated against two certified reference materials, namely BCR-611 and BCR-612 (low and high level Br- in groundwater), and successfully applied to the analysis of environmental water samples with recoveries in the range 93–106%.
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