Unexpected antioxidant efficiency of chlorogenic acid phenolipids in fish oil-in-water nanoemulsions: an example of how relatively low interfacial concentrations can make antioxidants to be inefficient
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3027
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/3/861
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Selecting effective antioxidants is challenging since their efficiency in inhibiting lipid oxidation depends on the rate constants of the chemical reactions involved and their concentration at the reaction site, i.e., at the interfacial region. Accumulation of antioxidants at the interface of emulsions is key to modulate their efficiency in inhibiting lipid oxidation but its control was not well understood, especially in emulsions. It can be optimized by modifying the physicochemical properties of antioxidants or the environmental conditions. In this work, we analyze the effects of surfactant concentration, droplet size, and oil to water ratio on the effective interfacial concentration of a set of chlorogenic acid (CGA) esters in fish oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions and nanoemulsions and on their antioxidant efficiency. A well-established pseudophase kinetic model is used to determine in the intact emulsified systems the effective concentrations of the antioxidants (AOs). The relative oxidative stability of the emulsions is assessed by monitoring the formation of primary oxidation products with time. Results show that the concentration of all AOs at the interfacial region is much higher (20–90 fold) than the stoichiometric one but is much lower than those of other phenolipid series such as caffeic or hydroxytyrosol derivatives. The main parameter controlling the interfacial concentration of antioxidants is the surfactant volume fraction, ΦI, followed by the O/W ratio. Changes in the droplet sizes (emulsions and nanoemulsions) have no influence on the interfacial concentrations. Despite the high radical scavenging capacity of CGA derivatives and their being concentrated at the interfacial region, the investigated AOs do not show a significant effect in inhibiting lipid oxidation in contrast with what is observed using other series of homologous antioxidants with similar reactivity. Results are tentatively interpreted in terms of the relatively low interfacial concentrations of the antioxidants, which may not be high enough to make the rate of the inhibition reaction faster than the rate of radical propagation.
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