Renin–angiotensin system in liver metabolism: gender differences and role of incretins
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3535
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2218-1989/12/5/411
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The impaired hepatic lipids and carbohydrates metabolism result in various metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has been identified in the liver and it is now recognized as an important modulator of body metabolic processes. This review is intended to provide an update of the impact of the renin–angiotensin system on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, regarding gender difference and prenatal undernutrition, specifically focused on the role of the liver. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has renewed interest in the potential therapeutic role of RAS modulation. RAS is over activated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to modulate RAS. The GLP-I analogue liraglutide antagonizes hepatocellular steatosis and exhibits liver protection. Liraglutide has a negative effect on the ACE/AngII/AT1R axis and a positive impact on the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis. Activation of the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas counter-regulatory axis is able to prevent liver injuries. Angiotensin(1-7) and ACE2 shows more favorable effects on lipid homeostasis in males but there is a need to do more investigation in female models. Prenatal undernutrition exerts long-term effects in the liver of offspring and is associated with a number of metabolic and endocrine alterations. These findings provide a novel therapeutic regimen to prevent and treat many chronic diseases by accelerating the effect of the ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas axis and inhibiting the ACE/AngII/AT1R axis.
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