EST-microsatellite types and structural scenarios in European hake fisheries
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3615
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/12/11/1462
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2401.08 Genética Animal ; 2409.03 Genética de Poblaciones ; 3105 Peces y Fauna Silvestre ; 5312.01 Agricultura, Silvicultura, Pesca
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
A fishery’s structure and connectivity are priors to its effective management. A successful description of such processes depends on both the sampling design and the choice of adequate genetic markers. EST markers are perfusing the studies of marine metapopulations and are believed to provide access to functional polymorphisms. However, the assumed adaptive role of outlier EST loci might not be generalizable. EST-microsatellites represent the upper polymorphic boundary in these regions because of their high mutation rate. We have subclassified the polymorphisms of EST-microsatellites to assess their structural contribution in the European hake, a paradigmatic and highly mobile marine species (HMMS). Because of the counterbalanced forces between directional markers (15%) and balanced markers (23%), the whole marker set offers the same structural situation as the one observed with neutral markers (62%), i.e., k = 2 gene pools. In contrast to outlier EST- microsatellites, neutral EST subsets allow one to measure crucial population phenomena for fisheries’ management. The high inter-population divergence of outlier EST-microsatellites is compatible with drifted post-selection genomic regions rather than with ongoing local selective pressures. The structural scenario in hake is explainable by a limited gene flow across the Almería-Oran Front (AOF) and by the within-basin IBD pattern of connectivity plus drift-related demographic events. This study highlights how polymorphic properties of EST-microsatellite types can be useful to address mutually excluding research tasks in fisheries, i.e., to address its evolutionary history (directional markers or FAPS: Fossil Adaptive Polymorphic Systems); to delineate management units (neutral markers or NAPS: Non Adaptive Polymorphic Systems); or to ensure sustainability (balanced markers or APS: Adaptive Polymorphic Systems).
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