Cross talk between synthetic food colors (azo dyes), oral flora, and cardiovascular disorders
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3695
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/12/14/7084
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3309.08 Colorantes ; 3207.04 Patología Cardiovascular ; 2414.08 Procesos Microbianos
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Synthetic food colors are important ingredients in the food industry. These synthetic food colorants are azo dyes, majorly acidic in nature such as Allura red and Tartrazine. They are present in sweets, carbonated drinks, meat products, and candies to attract the consumers. This review article is an attempt to explain the adverse effects of azo dyes and their association with oral cavities and cardiovascular disorders. These synthetic dyes (azo dyes) have staining effects on dentin. Poor dental care accelerates the bacterial accumulation on the dental crown (Gram-negative bacteria P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia and Gram-positive bacteria Strep. Gordonii), causing the washing of enamel, forming dental plaque. Bacterial pathogens (P. ginigivalis and F. nacleatum) release different chemicals (FadA and Fap2) that bind to protein on the cell by producing an inflammatory response through different line-host defenses, such as Gingival epithelial cells (ECs), Hemi-desmosomes, and desmosomes, which helps the bacterium migration from the cell–cell junction. This makes the junctions slightly open up and makes the whole vessel permeable, through which the bacterium enters into the blood stream line. This leads to different major arteries, such as the carotid artery, and causes the accumulation of plaque in major cardiac arteries, which causes different cardiovascular disorders. These bacterial species present in gums cause cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease, heart attacks and strokes, and arrhythmias, which can lead to death.
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