Rosmarinic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis seedlings through reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3715
EDITED VERSION: https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208802
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2417 Biología Vegetal (Botánica) ; 2511 Ciencias del Suelo (Edafología)
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Phytotoxic potential of rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid ester largely found in aromatic species, was evaluated on Arabidopsis through metabolomic and microscopic approaches. In-vitro bioassays pointed out that RA affected root growth and morphology, causing ROS burst, ROS scavengers activity inhibition and consequently, an alteration on cells organization and ultrastructure. In particular, RA-treatment (175 μM) caused strong vacuolization, alteration of mitochondria structure and function and a consistent ROS-induced reduction of their transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). These data suggested a cell energy deficit also confirmed by the metabolomic analysis, which highlighted a strong alteration of both TCA cycle and amino acids metabolism. Moreover, the increase in H2O2 and O2− contents suggested that RA-treated meristems underwent oxidative stress, resulting in apoptotic bodies and necrotic cells. Taken together, these results suggest that RA inhibits two of the main ROS scavengers causing high ROS accumulation, responsible of the alterations on mitochondrial ultrastructure and activity through ΔΨm dissipation, TCA-cycle alteration, cell starvation and consequently cell death on Arabidopsis seedlings. All these effects resulted in a strong inhibition on root growth and development, which convert RA in a promising molecule to be explored for further use in weed management.
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