Antimicrobial resistance pattern, clustering mechanisms and correlation matrix of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in black Bengal goats in West Bengal, India
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3954
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/11/10/1344
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
A cross-sectional study covering four agro-climatic zones of West Bengal, India, was carried out to understand the risk-factors, antimicrobial resistance mechanism and clustering of the resistance characteristics of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy (170) and diarrhoeic (74) goats reared under intensive (52) and semi-intensive (192) farming practices. Of the 488 E. coli isolates, the majority, including the extended spectrum (n: 64, 13.11%) and AmpC β-lactamase (ACBL) (n: 86, 17.62%) producers, were resistant to tetracycline (25.2%), followed by enrofloxacin (24.5%), cefotaxime (21.5%) and amikacin (20.5%). Statistical modelling revealed that the isolates from diarrhoeic animals (p < 0.001) are likely to be more ACBL-positive than those from the healthy counterparts. Similarly, cefotaxime (p < 0.05) and enrofloxacin-resistance (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in diarrhoeic goats and in goats reared intensively. The isolates (n = 35) resistant to multiple drugs revealed the presence of β-lactamase [blaCTXM-1-(21), blaSHV-(7), blaTEM-(3), blaCMY-6-(1), blaCITM-(3)]; quinolone [qnrB-(10), qnrS-(7), aac(6’)-Ib-cr-(3)]; tetracycline [tetA-(19), tetB-(4)] and sulphonamide resistance determinants [sul1-(4)]; multiple plasmids, especially those belonging to the IncF and IncI1 replicon types; and active acrAB efflux pumps. Further, two isolates harbored the carbapenem resistance (blaNDM-5) gene and eight were strong biofilm producers. This first ever study conducted to unravel the status of AMR in goat farming reveals that not only the intensive farming practices but also certain clinical ailments such as diarrhoea can increase the shedding of the drug-resistant isolate. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli in goats, particularly those that are carbapenem resistant, is a cause for concern that indicates the spread of such pathogens even in the livestock sub-sector generally considered as naive.
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