Efficient extraction of carrageenans from Chondrus crispus for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and formulation of printable hydrogels
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/3967
EDITED VERSION: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0141813022004019
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The integral utilization of sustainable resources with versatile, efficient and cleaner processes is encouraged. Hydrothermal treatment with subcritical water is a chemical free, tunable and rapid technology providing enhanced yield compared to conventional extraction and was explored for the benign by design extraction and depolymerization of carrageenan from Chondrus crispus. Up to 90% of the seaweed was solubilized operating under nonisothermal regime during heating up to 200 °C and 75.5% crude carrageenan yield was attained at 140 °C. Crude carrageenan could not be precipitated by ethanol from the extracts produced at 180 °C and higher temperatures, but ultrafiltration (100 kDa) of the extract obtained at 160 °C provided comparable recovery yields and similar rheological features to those of the ethanol precipitated product. Operation at 140 °C was preferred based on the higher recovery yield of the biopolymer and the whole extract was suitable for the green synthesis of polycrystalline decahedral quasi-spherical gold nanoparticles with a mean size distribution of 8.4 nm and Z potential value of −40.2 mV. Alternatively, the crude carrageen fraction was used for the formulation of printable biopolymer based gels with suitable mechanical properties, including a relevant gel strength enhancement (about 10-fold) when compared with conventional procedures.
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