Temporal variability of diazotroph community composition in the upwelling region off NW Iberia
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4012
EDITED VERSION: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39586-4
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2401 Biología Animal (Zoología) ; 2510.01 Oceanografía Biológica ; 2401.06 Ecología Animal
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Knowledge of the ecology of N 2 -fixing (diazotrophic) plankton is mainly limited to oligotrophic (sub)tropical oceans. However, diazotrophs are widely distributed and active throughout the global ocean. Likewise, relatively little is known about the temporal dynamics of diazotrophs in productive areas. Between February 2014 and December 2015, we carried out 9 one-day samplings in the temperate northwestern Iberian upwelling system to investigate the temporal and vertical variability of the diazotrophic community and its relationship with hydrodynamic forcing. In downwelling conditions, characterized by deeper mixed layers and a homogeneous water column, non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs belonging mainly to nifH clusters 1G (Gammaproteobacteria) and 3 (putative anaerobes) dominated the diazotrophic community. In upwelling and relaxation conditions, affected by enhanced vertical stratification and hydrographic variability, the community was more heterogeneous vertically but less diverse, with prevalence of UCYN-A (unicellular cyanobacteria, subcluster 1B) and non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs from clusters 1G and 3. Oligotyping analysis of UCYN-A phylotype showed that UCYN-A2 sublineage was the most abundant (74%), followed by UCYN-A1 (23%) and UCYN-A4 (2%). UCYN-A1 oligotypes exhibited relatively low frequencies during the three hydrographic conditions, whereas UCYN-A2 showed higher abundances during upwelling and relaxation. Our findings show the presence of a diverse and temporally variable diazotrophic community driven by hydrodynamic forcing in an upwelling system.
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