Effects of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin on microbial structure and growth as emerging pollutants reaching crop soils
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4092
EDITED VERSION: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013935122012439
UNESCO SUBJECT: 2511 Ciencias del Suelo (Edafología) ; 2511.01 Bioquímica de Suelos ; 2511.02 Biología de Suelos ; 2414.01 Antibióticos
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The presence of emerging pollutants, and specifically antibiotics, in agricultural soils has increased notably in recent decades, causing growing concern as regards potential environmental and health issues. With this in mind, the current study focuses on evaluating the toxicity exerted by three antibiotics (amoxicillin, trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin) on the growth of soil bacterial communities, when these pollutants are present at different doses, and considered in the short, medium, and long terms (1, 8 and 42 days of incubation). Specifically, the research was carried out in 12 agricultural soils having different physicochemical characteristics and was performed by means of the leucine (3H) incorporation method. In addition, changes in the structure of soil microbial communities at 8 and 42 days were studied in four of these soils, using the phospholipids of fatty acids method for this. The main results indicate that the most toxic antibiotic was amoxicillin, followed by trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. The results also show that the toxicity of amoxicillin decreases with time, with values of Log IC50 ranging from 0.07 ± 0.05 to 3.43 ± 0.08 for day 1, from 0.95 ± 0.07 to 3.97 ± 0.15 for day 8, and from 2.05 ± 0.03 to 3.18 ± 0.04 for day 42, during the incubation period. Regarding trimethoprim, 3 different behaviors were observed: for some soils the growth of soil bacterial communities was not affected, for a second group of soils trimethoprim toxicity showed dose-response effects that remained persistent over time, and, finally, for a third group of soils the toxicity of trimethoprim increased over time, being greater for longer incubation times (42 days). As regards ciprofloxacin, this antibiotic did not show a toxicity effect on the growth of soil bacterial communities for any of the soils or incubation times studied. Furthermore, the principal component analysis performed with the phospholipids of fatty acids results demonstrated that the microbial community structure of these agricultural soils, which persisted after 42 days of incubation, depended mainly on soil characteristics and, to a lesser extent, on the dose and type of antibiotic (amoxicillin, trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin). In addition, it was found that, in this research, the application of the three antibiotics to soils usually favored the presence of fungi and Gram-positive bacteria.
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