Genome editing and cancer: How far has research moved forward on CRISPR/Cas9?
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4107
EDITED VERSION: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0753332222004000
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Cancer accounted for almost ten million deaths worldwide in 2020. Metastasis, characterized by cancer cell invasion to other parts of the body, is the main cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumor formation and discovery of potential drug targets are of great importance. Gene editing techniques can be used to find novel drug targets and study molecular mechanisms. In this review, we describe how popular gene-editing methods such as CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN and ZFNs work, and, by comparing them, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 has superior efficiency and precision. We further provide an overview of the recent applications of CRISPR/Cas9 to cancer research, focusing on the most common cancers such as breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer. We describe how these applications will shape future research and treatment of cancer, and propose new ways to overcome current challenges
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