Spice-derived bioactive compounds confer colorectal cancer prevention via modulation of gut microbiota
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4148
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/14/22/5682
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3210 Medicina Preventiva ; 3207.03 Carcinogénesis ; 3309.20 Propiedades de Los Alimentos
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality among all types of malignancies. Sedentary lifestyles, obesity, smoking, red and processed meat, low-fiber diets, inflammatory bowel disease, and gut dysbiosis are the most important risk factors associated with CRC pathogenesis. Alterations in gut microbiota are positively correlated with colorectal carcinogenesis, as these can dysregulate the immune response, alter the gut’s metabolic profile, modify the molecular processes in colonocytes, and initiate mutagenesis. Changes in the daily diet, and the addition of plant-based nutraceuticals, have the ability to modulate the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, maintaining gut homeostasis and regulating host immune and inflammatory responses. Spices are one of the fundamental components of the human diet that are used for their bioactive properties (i.e., antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects) and these exert beneficial effects on health, improving digestion and showing anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and glucose- and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as possessing properties that affect cognition and mood. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of spices could be useful in the prevention of various types of cancers that affect the digestive system. This review is designed to summarize the reciprocal interactions between dietary spices and the gut microbiota, and highlight the impact of dietary spices and their bioactive compounds on colorectal carcinogenesis by targeting the gut microbiota.
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