ATXN1 N-terminal region explains the binding differences of wild-type and expanded forms
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4169
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Background Wild-type (wt) polyglutamine (polyQ) regions are implicated in stabilization of protein-protein interactions (PPI). Pathological polyQ expansion, such as that in human Ataxin-1 (ATXN1), that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), results in abnormal PPI. For ATXN1 a larger number of interactors has been reported for the expanded (82Q) than the wt (29Q) protein. Methods To understand how the expanded polyQ affects PPI, protein structures were predicted for wt and expanded ATXN1, as well as, for 71 ATXN1 interactors. Then, the binding surfaces of wt and expanded ATXN1 with the reported interactors were inferred. Results Our data supports that the polyQ expansion alters the ATXN1 conformation and that it enhances the strength of interaction with ATXN1 partners. For both ATXN1 variants, the number of residues at the predicted binding interface are greater after the polyQ, mainly due to the AXH domain. Moreover, the difference in the interaction strength of the ATXN1 variants was due to an increase in the number of interactions at the N-terminal region, before the polyQ, for the expanded form. Conclusions There are three regions at the AXH domain that are essential for ATXN1 PPI. The N-terminal region is responsible for the strength of the PPI with the ATXN1 variants. How the predicted motifs in this region affect PPI is discussed, in the context of ATXN1 post-transcriptional modifications.
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