Summarizing minimization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in thermally processed foods by different strategies
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4496
EDITED VERSION: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0956713522007071
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3309.14 Elaboración de Alimentos ; 3207.03 Carcinogénesis ; 2306.02 Hidrocarburos Aromáticos
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental carcinogens which are produced in food during their processing and thermal treatment. Consumption of such foods results in diverse diseases including cancer in humans, raising a serious need to either prevent formation of these compounds in food or reduce and remove these carcinogens once they are formed. The concern is very important and reasonable as diet contributes to 88–98% exposure. Some of the processes followed to prevent PAHs formation include regulation of the cooking/ processing practices/methods and revolves around deodorization and refining of oil as well as sugars, choosing right type of oil and frying process, choosing liquid smoking process over traditional practices, reducing fat content of product and preferring the right part of product (especially in meats), roasting and baking products at lower time-temperature combinations with preferences to electric oven and indirect processes, using the right heat medium (wood chips for barbequeing/charcoal grilling, using correct wraps for food products to prevent direct contact with heat and fat drippings and much more. Though these processes may be followed at household and commercial scales and have been stated in several published literature, but the absence of PAHs may not always be guaranteed in food products. This leaves the scientific community to attempt and develop strategies which can remove the already existing PAHs from food products and needs to be extensively reviewed and worked in future. This review bridges the PAHs’ reduction and removal strategies [different types of ingredients (marination, spice addition), the specific kind of packaging (aluminium foils, plastic films, charred barrels, paraffin rind), the heating treatments (irradiation, microwave preheating, defatting, brewing etc.), but also the characteristics of adsorbents and filters used (active charcoal, diatomaceous earth, zeolite filters, molecular sieves), together with innovative removal apparatus] with emphasis on biological and physical-chemical factors influencing their formation/reduction or removal/degradation, mainly in heat-processed food [such as composition and surface adsorption properties, etc.]. The overall goal is to develop the understanding of the interactions amongst all factors affecting PAHs removal and draw recommendations based on conclusions of scientific evidence and propose future challenges in this area.
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