Analysis of the local growth and density evolution of soot deposits generated under hydrocarbon condensation: 3D simulation and detailed experimental validation
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/4913
EDITED VERSION: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2590123023002931
UNESCO SUBJECT: 3310.01 Equipo Industrial ; 3313.13 Motores de Combustión Interna (General) ; 3313.12 Equipo y Maquinaria Industrial
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
The utilization of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system during atypical engine operating conditions in order to meet future type-approval criteria exposes the internal surfaces of the devices to exhaust gas with elevated concentrations of particulate matter and greater amounts of hydrocarbon species, leading to the formation of dense and wet sludge deposits. To broaden the understanding of this phenomenon and contribute to the development of advanced EGR devices, this study presents an extended Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that, in addition to simulating the growth of fouling deposits caused by the accumulation of soot particles, also takes into account the condensation of hydrocarbons. Two scenarios with varying hydrocarbon concentrations in the exhaust flow are analysed, and the evolution of the deposit's thickness and density is determined. A sequential validation process is carried out by comparing the numerical results to actual deposit profiles at different stages of the fouling process. Additionally, hyperspectral images of the fouling layer have been acquired and analysed to validate the regions where hydrocarbon condensation is predicted to play a crucial role, enabling the verification of the hydrocarbon condensation phenomenon predicted by the numerical model. The results obtained under the studied conditions indicate that, on average, 77.4% of the analysed area exhibits a low level of relative error, demonstrating that the proposed model and the methodology used serve as a valuable tool for examining the propensity for deposit formation in devices subjected to fouling exacerbated by hydrocarbon condensation.
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