Human breast milk microRNAs, potential players in the regulation of nervous system
Freiría Martínez, Luis; Iglesias Martínez Almeida, Marta; Rodríguez Jamardo, Cynthia; Rivera Baltanás, Tania; Comís Tuche, María; Rodrigues Amorim, Daniela; Fernández Palleiro, Patricia; Blanco Formoso, María; Diz Chaves, Yolanda Maria; González Freiria, Natalia; Suárez Albo, María; Martín Forero Maestre, Montserrat; Durán Fernández-Feijoo, Cristina; Fernández Lorenzo, Jose Ramón; Concheiro Guisán, Ana; Olivares, José Manuel; Spuch Calvar, Carlos
UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER: http://hdl.handle.net/11093/5098
EDITED VERSION: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/15/14/3284
DOCUMENT TYPE: article
Human milk is the biological fluid with the highest exosome amount and is rich in microRNAs (miRNAs). These are key regulators of gene expression networks in both normal physiologic and disease contexts, miRNAs can influence many biological processes and have also shown promise as biomarkers for disease. One of the key aspects in the regeneration of the nervous system is that there are practically no molecules that can be used as potential drugs. In the first weeks of lactation, we know that human breast milk must contain the mechanisms to transmit molecular and biological information for brain development. For this reason, our objective is to identify new modulators of the nervous system that can be used to investigate neurodevelopmental functions based on miRNAs. To do this, we collected human breast milk samples according to the time of delivery and milk states: mature milk and colostrum at term; moderate and very preterm mature milk and colostrum; and late preterm mature milk. We extracted exosomes and miRNAs and realized the miRNA functional assays and target prediction. Our results demonstrate that miRNAs are abundant in human milk and likely play significant roles in neurodevelopment and normal function. We found 132 different miRNAs were identified across all samples. Sixty-nine miRNAs had significant differential expression after paired group comparison. These miRNAs are implicated in gene regulation of dopaminergic/glutamatergic synapses and neurotransmitter secretion and are related to the biological process that regulates neuron projection morphogenesis and synaptic vesicle transport. We observed differences according to the delivery time and with less clarity according to the milk type. Our data demonstrate that miRNAs are abundant in human milk and likely play significant roles in neurodevelopment and normal function.
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